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Basic commands to use in the terminal

In this manual you will learn the basic commands to handle the terminal of your Linux server.

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As the acronym of its name indicates, it is used to Change Directory.

To go to the root of the directory:

cd /

If we want to go to a specific directory:

cd my_directory/another_directory

To go to the previous directory:

cd .


With this command we will obtain a "LIST" of the directories and/or files, it would be like a DIR of MS-DOS:


You can use the *, which will do the wildcard function:

ls *.txt

It would show only files with the extension .txt


With this command you can create a directory:

mkdir new_directory


Unlike the previous command, this command is used to delete directories:

rmdir new_directory


MV is used to move files, after the "command" we will put the file we want to move and the destination directory:

mv my_file my_directory


RM is used to delete files, if accompanied by * it will delete all files in the directory you are in:

rm my_file
rm *


This command is used to clear the terminal screen:



CP of "COPY", used to copy files and directories:

cp file copy_file

You can make the copy in another directory:

cp file /directory/sub_directory


DF indicates the disk space, available, used and total:

df -h


DU is used to find out how much space a file occupies in a directory:

du /my_directory

If you want to know how much space is occupied by files with the same extension (with -s), you can find out:

du -s *.txt


It is used to find a file. By default, the command would show a list of all directories and files starting from the directory you are in:

find -name filename


If something doesn't work, this command will be of great help, first we will have to know which processes are running with:

kill -l

Then we will look at the number of the process that is causing us problems and we will close it:

kill -l 5


With MAN followed by the command you want, you will get the necessary help, as well as different combinations of the command in question:

man du


Used to change the user, it will ask you for the password to make the change:

su other_user


With this command you will exit the terminal and close it:


Remember that with the dates (above and below) you will get a history of everything you have typed in the terminal, this way, you will save yourself from typing it again.

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